The machine, faithful servant of the human being
1986/12/01 Arrojeria, Eustakio - Elhuyar Zientziaren Komunikazioa Iturria: Elhuyar aldizkaria
Heart Complaints Office
We are in a regional center that diagonalizes remotely through the electrocardiogram. It has received a serious call from the city of Oziori, located in the Moscow area. The patient with abdominal pain arrives at the Hospital Comarcal. However, when exploring the abdominal cavity no anomaly has been found, everything is fine. What happens? The previous analysis, however, indicates heart disease.
About ten years ago he suffered a heart attack. Second call? The appearance of pain in the belly rather than in the chest should not confuse the doctor. Because, as is known, heart pain appears anywhere and where less is expected. Will the electrocardiogram confirm the medical diagnosis?
The automatic recorder has left remains of summits and vaguadas on the paper tape. However, the usual heart attack picture does not appear. Therefore, should the initial diagnosis be denied? However, the cardiologist does not dare to assure you. The support of specialists who will analyze the progress of the heart is, as is known, absolutely necessary.
A few years ago, the doctors of the Regional Hospital would study the way forward in this case: Call a Moscow consultant, move from the hospital to the city with all medical documentation or transfer the patient to the city. Whatever the decision adopted, it would be urgent, as you can not waste time. Heart attack is a situation that requires immediate action.
Today, however, they do not decide what to do. Nurses of the department of electrocardiography for scientific research at the M. Moscow Blintelirski in the clinical institute (summarized and Russian: Dial the MONIKI phone number. The request for consultation will be corrected, the patient will be prepared and MONIKI will be called again.
The anodes that record the biopotentials of the patient's heart rate are connected to a small electrical transformer. The sound adapter stands out a little low that oscillates keeping pace. The nurse attaches the adapter to the bottom of the earphone, the microphone. This way you can listen from the other end. At first, hearing this sound in the phone room, the line was cut by line error. But today they have news of this sound: we have the human heart that is asking for help.
In the table of the diagnostic and consultation equipment the tape is moved with the cardiogram. At your side is the formulation along with the patient data recorded through the operator and the name of the disease. The operation of the heart is also seen on the screen. The head of the center should also direct a supervision to the registry to check the severity of the problem. If necessary, the consultant would request other data from the Oziio electrocardiologist. Gradually the picture becomes clear.
"Ozio! At the moment we have everything we need. You are free!"
The operator replaces the table to receive the diagram issued from Demitrov. Another online city in the Moscow region. During this time, the consulted is analyzing the information received from Oziori.
Sometimes the problem is more complicated than expected for a single person and in these cases medical meetings are held, medical meetings with renowned specialists working in this medical center. This center is one of the oldest in the Soviet Union. In this case, the consulted has been able to carry out the analysis ahead of time. The sending of information to Ozio has been done quickly, confirming the conclusions.
In this way, the safety of cardiac service has increased noticeably, since the discomfort that occurs at the time of diagnosis and the burdensome that occur delay the proper treatment, causing in some cases unfortunate situations. Thanks to the electrocardiogram that diagnoses at a distance, patients who must be admitted immediately in the Moscow region can be hospitalized within 15-30 minutes.
This system is increasingly widespread in the Soviet Union. Currently the signals are emitted from anywhere.
In some cases, when there is no phone in the area (from the fishery in large waters, from the hospital, etc. ), the signals are sent over the radio and then broadcast over the network of telephones.
The center between the centers or districts of the electrocardiogram enclosure that diagnoses at a distance is responsible for deciphering the main source of the cardiograms, obtaining the appropriate conclusions. Among other devices, the reception room has magnetic memory. If you need help, the cardiogram is immediately sent to the regional center. When it is absolutely necessary to listen to the heartbeat of the patient, they are heard in the regional center. If this is an exceptional case, the regional center analyzes and works the case in a group. Therefore, at present, the cardiologist working in Kamchatka can count on the help of the Moscow spicist.
The cardiologies and engineers of Saratov have collaborated in the creation of a diagnostic and consultation table "Volna" and its connection transmitters. According to the doctors, the device has triumphed, works correctly and the serial manufacture of the device has been carried out.
"Engine" of the NEPTUNE
Small electric impulse generators located in the human body affect the heart muscle contracting at normal rate. However, the effective contribution of the motor electric heart to the long-term myocardium is not achieved as easily as it is believed.
Colleagues at the Kaunas Institute of Medicine have improved the electrodes of these devices, which are in continuous contact with living tissues. Its improvement is mainly based on the contact surface and the reduction of the surface. This results in a decrease in the aggressions produced by the device and the impulses in the heart tissues. The energy consumption of the power supply has been saved, extending the operating time of the motor heart.
But in some cases the heart may lose its ability to function. In these cases, although the agent influences what he wants, it is useless. The heart cannot accept any help. On the other hand, the organism in general can survive. The only result that can be deduced is the replacement of the deteriorated "engine with life".
The veal on the forehead with a star space was baptized as Neptune. When he woke up, he got up, drank water and starved at the branch he offered... He seems to have done nothing that is not normal. But the researchers look at him with illusion. The reason is that on March 13, 1984 his heart is replaced by an artificial heart. Once the change has been made, the usual behaviour of the calf means that the organism has not damaged the mechanical apparatus and that the blood reaches all organs and tissues correctly.
However, one had to be cautious. It was very little to ensure the proper functioning of the device. Can artificial heart be used for a long time? The researchers had already completed the daily motto: will our Neptune be well?
The device that pumps blood to reside every day and without delays, must respond to a number of contradictory requirements: combine consistency and variability with vulnerable blood cell, power and reliability, etc... the main difficulty lies in getting an artificial heart cavity that ensures adequate physical conditions for blood flow.
Specialists from the Institute of Transplants and Artificial Organs managed to complete the model called "Póisk" (Evolution), which seems to respond excessively to the basic requirements. The artificial heart applied to Neptune was an example of this type.
It seems they followed the right path. Neptune survived for two months. V. Shumakov considers it important in principle to exceed the period of one month for research work and daily surgery. This situation is considered as an intermediate situation, that is, until the moment in which the human heart is transplanted and not as definitive. It is a solution that will be applied when the heart of the patient has deteriorated and there is no more human heart available, so in gravity the artificial heart would be a good resource.
It offers enough time to get a new human heart, since the period of one month is enough and, in this case, it is two months. As for its definitive implementation, everyday life will be impossible. The man will be forced to carry a large volume external battery.
The truth is that it is impossible to carry such an overload. The plastic cardiac prosthesis placed on the breast of the calf cannot work on its own. The artificial heart contracts thanks to the compressed air that enters through the tubes of the compressor located on the outside. The electronic control block regulates the rhythm of the mechanical heart.
In order to carry out a permanent use of the artificial heart, the artificial heart and the command must be placed on the chest or, at least, the command will be tied to the body, for example in the form of a backpack. In this way, the patient would not have great difficulties in leading a normal life.
They are already in the USSR opening ways to carry out an autonomous artificial heart. Its execution consists in solving two problems: the creation of a power supply and the creation of useful command and autonomous control systems. The equipment must be compact and weigh between 700 and 800 grams. To ensure a duration of 5-10 years of the established artificial heart, the main source of energy is the variable composed of plutonium or purified biomedical tritium.
Several compact models normally work in test benches at the institute. One of them is the backpack model "Guertz-02". The thermal motor in the backpack makes the established cardiac prosthesis polished. Its energy source offers the plutonium isotope.
On the other hand, a cardiac prosthesis composed of an electric motor is being carried out, so that both are inserted into the cavity corresponding to the heart. The only section left out is the battery power supply.
According to the specialists of the institute, the system that uses the substitute steam machine is the artificial heart that offers higher expectations of the future. A. Led by engineer Osipov, a team of researchers has designed a peculiar mechanical heart: A mechanical heart called a micron. Its work characteristics resemble the natural heart.
The principle of use is very simple. The isotope source excites gas or steam heating. When it expands, it pushes the motion transformer to the cylinder piston, which retracts the membranes of the artificial ventricle.
For its part, the cooling of the gases is done by absorbing the heat of the gases, so the piston lowers. Then the whole cycle is repeated. This ensures rhythmic contraction of the ventricles. The models "Micron-02" and "Guertz-02" are completely different. As the first one is very small, you can put it in the heart cavity and the other one is not. This is the most important difference between the two in terms of human dependence.
Exploring the possibility of an autonomous artificial heart in medicine is an exciting topic. Through the machine patients would enjoy and enjoy their normal life.
V. The Olimp calf, cut by Shumakov in late 1984, survived for more than 100 days thanks to the artificial heart with external commands. As can be seen, it has already achieved the triple time necessary to find the natural heart. It is a very important step, because what is at stake is the organism of the human being.
It also advances the design of the autonomous artificial heart. According to scholars, in addition to experimental tables, it would work well in animal bodies. They are convinced of it. If so, even though the one who keeps the human body alive is an artificial heart, man could lead a normal life.