# Exotic candidates of the lost mass

1988/02/01
Arregi Bengoa, Jesus
**Iturria:**
Elhuyar aldizkaria

In the last issue we made a reference to several fractions as an example of these peculiar forms of matter. But while talking about fractions we have to take into account all the objections of quantum mechanics, we can always get some expression. The entities we are going to try to describe are of a totally different nature: we have magnetic monopoles. The analysis of the generation of these errors also leads us to the early days of the same Universe. It is believed that errors began to form between 10 and 35 seconds after the big-bang explosion.

To start working we have to define a little the concept of vacuum. When we speak of emptiness we must not imagine the ideal at all. In the field of quantum the description is quite complicated because the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg allows the vacuum to have its own structure. According to a version of this principle, in the study of a phenomenon it is not possible to accurately determine the moment in which it occurred and the energy balance. More specifically, the product of the uncertainty of the value of the energy balance due to the uncertainty of the moment cannot be greater than the constant of Planck.

If the duration of the phenomenon is very short, the energy uncertainty is high. Therefore, considering short periods, the mechanical-quantum vacuum can contain energy. This energy, for example, can form anti-fraction pairs. Moreover, current fractional theories predict the existence of the so-called Higgs areas. These fields refer to vacuum, that is, they are part of the structure of the vacuum and depending on its values the vacuum can adopt different energy situations, such as the real vacuum and the false vacuum that we will use in our explanations.

To understand well what topological errors are, we also need some principles on the path that fractions theories have taken today. The last steps taken for the development of these theories have focused on the field of conciliation theories. The main idea is that the three forces that were previously different (electromagnetic, weak interaction and violent interaction) come together in a single force or interaction. The consolidation mechanism is the relationship obtained by symmetry. That is, when the Universe is in a symmetrical phase these three forces come together in one, and when that symmetry breaks, differences appear between the three.

For a better understanding, we will set an example of mechanics as a comparison. If in the cylindrical container we have a likidio, the distribution of the molecules will seem the same despite turning the container. Therefore, this liquid will be described by a symmetric law. But if the liquid cools to crystallize, the atoms are ordered by crystallographic axes and symmetry is lost.

Something similar is to the theories of convergence of fractions: the rupture of symmetry is due to the temperature and the areas of Higgs. While the temperature exceeds 10 27 K, the values of both Higgs fields are zero (this does not mean that they do not exist, but that the equilibrium value of quantum fluctuations is zero) and we are in a symmetrical state. Below this critical temperature, at least one of the areas of Higgs is non-zero and forces separate.

If the phase change occurs in this way there would be no other thing to say, but the calculations of consolidation theories depend on many arbitrary parameters and for some of their logical values a special situation is achieved. The reason lies in the difference between the cooling speed of matter generated by these values and the transition speeds between phases. The first would be much larger and therefore the temperature would drop much below the limit 10 27 K, being the values of the Higgs zones still zero, that is, without breaking the symmetric phase.

This phenomenon is ultimately one of those well-known overheating phenomena. For example, water can be cooled to -20ºC without solidifying, that is, without a transition from the liquid phase to the solid. Under the conditions we have mentioned, the error would lead to a very special situation: what we have called false. This is much more energetic than the real vacuum. Therefore, it tends to evolve from its situation to the real one. This changes the phase. Topological errors arose at the end of this process and during the phase shift the Universe underwent enormous expansion.

As discussed at the beginning, the phase transition began in the 10-35” following the creation of the Universe, with a duration of 10-32” and an increase in the diameter of the Universe of approximately 10-50 times.

Now let's see how the errors formed. It should not be said that in the different spatial regions the transition occurred in different ways: Due to the madness of the chaotic fluctuations that will not make zero the values of the Higgs fields, the values that take the Higgs fields are different in the different regions and according to them we have different phases of broken symmetry.

Taking back the analogy of water to freeze, we could say that when the water freezes it forms a crystalline net, but if the amount of water is very large, the orientation of the crystallographic axes will be different in the different regions. Similarly, when moving from false to true error, errors occur within the boundaries of the different zones. To define it in some way, topological errors are zones that retain energy forms of vacuum. According to their dimensions they can be single-dimensional magnetic monopoles, one-dimensional strings and two-dimensional walls.

As for the problem of the lost mass, the first two are those that interest us. Magnetic monopoles are single-pole magnets or magnetically charged beings. The electric charges we know would behave inversely, creating magnetic fields at the stop and electric fields as they begin to move. As for the attraction they could have for dark matter, we must know that their mass is 10 16 times greater than that of the proton, not at all very large.

Strings are one-dimensional defects. Its diameter would be 10-30 cm. As for their length, they can be endless and open or ring. As for the mass its density would be enormous, 10 22 g/cm approximately. On the other hand, special importance is given to the strings, since if they exist they would have a great influence on the mass distribution in the early times of the Universe. The analysis of this point would help solve a long-discussed problem. What first emerged? Galaxies to then gather into clusters and superclusters, or superclusters to then divide them into clusters and galaxies?

Finally, we will say that the cosmic strings should not be confused with the strings and superstrings that are defined in the supersymmetric theories of fractions. These are a new way of understanding fractions.