IZADI: Usurbil Naturalist Association
1987/02/01 Arrojeria, Eustakio - Elhuyar Zientziaren Komunikazioa Iturria: Elhuyar aldizkaria
Daniel Palacios.- His story began around 1968 and 69. The artistic-musical association Garbi-alai had different sections among which were the mountaineers. There, within the mountain club, we decided to form a mycology team and participate in the Tolosa championship. In later years we participated in championships in Tolosa, Galdakao, Vitoria-Gasteiz, etc., also achieving a quite comfortable level.
However, at that time we were not entirely in accordance with the criteria that Aranzadi and other mycological associations of Gipuzkoa had, since the tournaments aimed at the competition were not didactic at all. The presence of the same species on each stand was a daily motto and strong groups gathered the same species.
The jury, for example, had to look at 30 stands and even if it reviewed them again and again, it was no wonder that some poorly classified good happened. On the other hand, people who approached could find mushrooms classified in different ways and well classified, since there are different classifications according to schools. Among the different schools, the best known are Anglo-Saxon and French. Therefore, and in view of this, it was decided to reject such competitions.
Although they were useful in advance, at that time they did not serve. Therefore, it seemed a good solution to organize exhibitions that were changing places. Being out of the competition and with a single stand, our specialists instead of being part of the jury classified the mushrooms. In addition, the risk of distraction was reduced and exhibitions became more didactic to the public. After four or five years, we spread out and everyone touched on their own.
Since then, I have worked as a mycologist and in 1980 (in the fifth edition of the days organized by the mountain club Andatza) a mycology contest was organized aimed at the youngest, with our participation. Because local mycology contests, slide projects, etc. they helped us move forward. It was a good way to make mushrooms known; talks were organized, etc. Before this it was decided to organize an exhibition.
Once the sample was constituted, the concerns we had marginalized emerged and, of course, among these concerns was not only mycology. Because we believe that if we only worked mycology, we would be like a good pelotari in the game of tips, because we could develop a single arm and our intention was to develop the whole body. Therefore, taking this into account, we decided that botany, ornithology, etc. had to work too, at least if we wanted to do a job that would serve something.
At that time there were people prepared to carry it out in Usurbil. For example, for the botanical area Errekondo, who was actually Technical Engineer Laborantz, since he was dressed in this subject. Also present was Ángel Nuñez, who worked in the field of ornithology in the Aranzadi society, to carry out ornithological intentions. For laboratory and advisory work, we saw Isidoro Iturralde as a suitable person, because in addition to being a person closely linked to nature, he is a biologist, and finally I got into mycology.
Therefore, as you see, in Aranzadi we were working two in the village; Angel and I, and on the other hand, were well prepared: Errekondo and Iturralde. Therefore, we had pretty much constituted the column. We were not orphans and we knew what we wanted to do. By completing the tokens and applying for grants to the City Council, we started working. Currently, the association will have between 29 and 32 partners.E.- Once the association was constituted in some way, what were the subsequent advances?
D.P.- We began with the activities and with the intention of starting, organized the Week of Nature that is celebrated in May. In it, fungi typical of the time, spring fungi, some botanical species of the time, etc. are collected. As these exhibitions were organized, we saw people in the village concerned about fossils. They already had enough fossil, but not classified. Therefore, we began to contact Arantzadi's paleontology specialists and they qualified them.
Subsequently, a demonstration was held with these fossils, worrying how many. As a result, expeditions have also been organized to search for fossils to the Ordejón de Abajo de Burgos. Lately we are in Deba and we are thinking of returning. Apparently, and considering how things go, we are forced to build a new branch, because people see the will to do it. On the other hand, and in collaboration with the association of mountaineers Andatza, mycological conferences are organized.
It organizes all kinds of contests related to mycology and natural sciences (photos, drawings...); there is also something curious that is projecting slides and that is already triumphing, we are trying to make known the edibility of fungi. For this purpose, mycological preparations of all types of fungi are made and in addition to various forms: conventional mixtures, croquettes, pates, etc., which are distributed to the public. At first, as is normal, people walked carefully, but now they eat everything that is prepared. They seem to trust us.
Other activities?, mycology courses, conferences on ornithology, mycology and botany, talks on fungal toxicomics, photo contests, etc. Of course, we are also working on the collection of materials: research materials, photographs through the microscope, exsiccatas...; already only in the field of mycology we have about three hundred slides. We also work on bibliography.E.- As the Arantzadi association has mentioned on several occasions, could you tell us what their relations are or are you on your own?
D.P.- No, we do not walk alone on our own, because today the solo march at the level of Gipuzkoa is an unacceptable luxury, and I went to myself without losing the identity of association, which I proposed to be a partner of the Arantzadi association, which was accepted by others. Acting in this way is only an advantage, such as taking advantage of their experience, being able to come to them, facilitating our path, etc. Therefore, today we are partners of the Arantzadi association for many reasons. In addition, two active members of IZADI, on our own, are included in Arantzadi and there are another four or five, although not active partners, who are in contact with the Arantzadi association.E.- Are the active members of the IZADI team citizens? That is, are they all usurbildarras?
D.P.- Yes, we can all consider ourselves citizens, because we are majority who are born or live in it. Some of them, the son of Mikel Laboa and a lady of the ikastola Landaberri, are not citizens. However, they can be considered quite popular.E.- Are the activities you organize aimed at the people of Usurbil? or span more space?
D.P.- We are extended to the region of Usurbil, since the money we handle is little and we do not reach more. On the other hand, in my opinion, it does not seem right for me to enter areas that may work other types of associations or other associations. It would be that we consider ourselves better than others, and that does not seem legitimate to me. On the contrary, our intention is to collaborate with other associations. But, in any case, we participate if we find it interesting by dates and topics.
Not long ago, in April last year, we organized an exhibition in the village with material of minerology and paleontology acquired by the Bilbao group Iberduero. At first we thought to do a week, but due to the demand of the people we had to lengthen another week. This exhibition was aimed at the schools of Usurbil and surrounding areas.E.- What kind of relationship do you have with the centers?
D.P.- Our desire is to work towards the centers, because our intention is to collect all that is around. That is, the long-term objective is to complete or prepare the census of flora and fauna that enters the natural region of Usurbil. And as you know, in order to carry out this type of work, it may take about 20 years (if not more), and the reason the association has to create files is this. On the other hand, the fact that we work in this region allows us to complete the studies of Gipuzkoa and Euskadi, and that is the path that we have proposed at the moment. Therefore, in order to carry it forward we have to go to schools. They will be followers of these actions and creators of new ones.E.- As mentioned above, this is a material that is collected: slides, data, etc. Where do you keep this material? Do you have a fixed meeting place?
D.P.- We met at the public school Ageri-alde. In addition, they have left us a local laboratory, cabinets and suitable material. Among the material that has left us there is a homemade microscope in Niko and with it we want to bring a new experience or a less known experience at the level of the Basque Country. We know that under Nikon's microscope you can attach the TV screen, so any type of cell can be viewed on the TV monitor using the microscope. Therefore, classes can be given normally, without students passing one by one ahead of the microscope. That is, by our opinion, or at least by my opinion, it can be a very curious experience.E.- As mentioned at the beginning, we have had news through IZADI magazine. Why have you published this magazine?
D.P.- As I told you, we were a fairly fixed group, we knew what we wanted to achieve and some of us had a habit of writing or publishing something before. Therefore, we came up with creating an informative magazine. People were afraid to write. But after all, we encouraged Isidoro, Nuñez and me and decided to move on without more. What happened to us?.
Something very simple: we saw the need to make ourselves known as we publish the magazine and this was the reason why, in addition to the degree of disclosure, something more serious was done, that is, the need to publish research papers. On the other hand, it must be borne in mind that because of the way we write some of those present, it is very expensive and difficult for us to adapt to the informative level. That is, for us it was a great job to write in language adapted to young people, and so the first issue of the magazine was made. Being the first issue, we are waiting for criticism.
At first the reviews were positive, but there were all kinds of reviews. Among them, the language, which we used Spanish too much and which we would only have to use Basque. In this respect we have our opinion and it is that if the work that is written is scientific or informative, it must be written in the language that the writer dominates. Yes, giving respect to the other language, writing a summary in the other language. We have always fulfilled that.
But what happens? Those who dominate some ornithology, toxicology and mycology cannot write in Basque, since we do not know, so we use the summary translation. On the other hand, Jakoba Errekondo has been limited to dissemination topics, so it seems that Basque has become a secondary language. I believe that Basque will occupy the place it needs as Basque writers are formed. However, a summary will have to be made in the other language and if necessary, also in English.
When it came time to raise the second issue, we received congratulations from several French mycological associations, and I started working. I know it is a work that few will read, but it seems to have been accepted in some European sectors. So, go ahead. Madrileños, catalanes and gallegos have also congratulated us. Our intention is to combine the degree of disclosure with the level of research while differentiating it. As you could have seen when you see the magazine, in the center of it are the legs and tissues to separate the animals. They appear very simply.
This has been the first step that has been taken to channel our goals and analyze the consequences of people. In the first issue we try to do something like that with the illusions of flowers. Some ikastolas have already been used. Therefore, as you can see, we want to publish the magazine complemented with scientific and informative aspects elaborated as separates. Its frequency is annual.
The magazine is distributed free of charge in the schools of the area (Usurbil, Lasarte,...). That is, most of the scope of distribution of the journal are the schools and the few remaining copies are used for exchange with other associations.E.- If the magazine is distributed free of charge, where do you get money to move on?
D.P.- We take advantage of the grant granted by the City Council and the Council. For the latter, the box has also helped us.E.- So far we have talked about the IZADI association and the IZADI magazine and we have not said anything about you. In two or three words can your resume appear.
D.P.- My professional curriculum is to be a printer and I will tell you about the studies, that I started agricultural studies at the Agrarian School of Burgos. But for different reasons of life I found myself in need of abandoning studies. In this career there was a subject of phytopathology. He took care of diseases that produce mushrooms in plants, and I hated that subject. Who would say then that I would dedicate myself to mycology?
By the year 41 there were many tuberculosis machines of hunger, lack of protein and vitamins. On the other hand, in Euskal Herria, due to the ignorance of the population or the waste of proteins, I realized this. This was why I was encouraged to start working as a mycologist.E.- Picking up your area, what are the most outstanding discoveries of recent times?
D.P.- In mycology the problem is quite complicated. Those who follow the Anglo-Saxon school called us fossils to those who followed the French school, so we reached an agreement, that of following the Anglo-Saxon school. This decision is the result of a meeting of myologists who addressed the unification of criteria. Therefore, we had to remodel the rankings. On the other hand, the criteria for microscope and irradiation studies have prevailed and new artificially obtained species are emerging.
When I say artificially, I mean that they were once known by the other name and are now classified by new classifications. As a consequence of the taxonomy that is being produced, the hancases that were made before are largely discarded. Nowadays, it requires a lot of precision when sorting it, so in recent times we have found mushrooms like Laccaria latericia. This is very similar to Laccaria laccata and lives in the habitat of the mimosas. It is a strange species, of Brazilian origin. It is the first to appear in early March or late February.
In my opinion, it is a widespread nature. But as we have said before, and as Laccaria laccata is similar to the saga, people have ignored it; Laccaria laccata is well known. As we know, Laccaria latericia's bibliography hardly appears anywhere. The difference between these two Laccaria is that one is bisporica and the other is tetrasporic. Someone found her and took her to Aranzadi.
After analyzing it, we realized that Laccata was not, but was bisporadic. We were looking among the bio-rich, but we found no reference. It was a new mention. At first it was thought to be the first mention at European level, but it seems that the Italians mentioned it before and the reference we had was that of North Africa. On the peninsula we were the first to mention. In France I do not know whether it has been mentioned or not, because I have no news from there. Although they have not mentioned it, in my opinion, they will mention it before long, since it is a very widespread siza.
Another of the species of interest found last year in one of the orchards of Usurbil is its presence. It is also a species not well specified at European level. In Europe, at this time of adaptation of the Lepiot subsets, the classifications are not completely finished. The mushroom we mentioned belongs to this group. Lepiota cretacea is a cure, once again curious: It is similar to Lepiota nauccina.E.- Thank you and even another, Daniel.